Aufelio J S Page

Ton projet est intéressant et bien présenté mais il n'y aucune erreur ! et il n'y a pas d'images. C'est dommage que ton projet ne soit pas plus "personnalisé" avec des textes rédigés par toi au lieu d'avoir été "copiés" sur un site ou rédigés par quelqu'un qui est bilangue!

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The Rotavirus:

what's Rotavirus ?

The Rotavirus , it's is a virus discovered by Ruth Bishop in Melbourne , in 1973. The virus rotaviruses cause gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, and are the number one cause of gastroenteritis

how are we infected?

The route of transmission is direct or indirect oro-fecal, essentially inter-human. The virus is resistant in the outside environment for months between 4 Â° C to 20 Â° C.

Rotaviruses are the leading cause of severe acute diarrhea in young children (which can be a factor in of mortality, the number of which in young children is around 500,000. in Children under 5 years of age die from rotavirus diarrhea each year ).

Almost all children are infected with a rotavirus during the first five years of their lives. This infection can remain asymptomatic or lead to gastroenteritis (IGE, infantile gastroenteritis), the main cause of which is rotavirus. Infection is often asymptomatic in adults.

What are the symptoms?

After an incubation period ranging from a few hours to a few days (usually 24 to 72 hours), frequent, watery stools appear suddenly. Since the virus can reach the liver, these stools may be clear and accompanied by dark urine. Fever, usually mild, is sometimes accompanied by vomiting, especially in infants. Complete healing occurs after 4 to 7 days.

However, severe diarrhea without adequate rehydration (in water and electrolytes by an oral rehydration solution) can lead to death. The association with other pathogens of the digestive system can play a role in the severity of the disease.

*Favoring or aggravating factors:**

-poor hygiene, especially of the hands

-community life, which combines with the first factor

-the existence of immunosuppression.

these 3 factors are the main ones for worsening or favoring contamination by Rotaviruses

*vaccines? if yes, which ones ?**

A first vaccine was developed in 1983 but has proved to be fairly ineffective in practice.

then a 2nd oral anti-rotavirus vaccine, Rotashield, was patented in 1991 and approved in 1998 and allowed the administration of approximately 1.5 million doses before the interruption of its marketing following a recommendation from the CDC in Atlanta: a few cases of fatal intestinal obstruction by intestinal intussusception had been associated with anti-rotavirus vaccination.

This vaccine was developed from a Rhesus monkey rotavirus strain recombined by co-infection with three human rotavirus strains. This vaccine is effective against the three serotypes of human rotavirus.

Since 2004, two new vaccines (active viruses) which no longer show the risk of fatal intestinal obstructions, when used in infants, have been marketed: Rotateq from the Merck laboratory and Rotarix from the GlaxoSmithKline laboratory. Administered orally, they are indicated in the active immunization of infants from six weeks of age. The vaccination schedule includes:

- three doses (Rotateq): the first dose can be administered from the age of six weeks and at the latest at the age of 12 weeks. The interval between each dose should be at least four weeks. The three doses should preferably be administered before the age of 20-22 weeks, but it is possible to administer them up to 32 weeks;

- two doses (Rotarix): the first dose can be administered from the age of six weeks. The interval between doses should be at least four weeks. The vaccination schedule should preferably be administered before the age of 16 weeks, and should be completed before the age of 24 weeks.

These two vaccines authorized and now used routinely in eleven countries have shown an efficacy of 8 to 98%, according to tests carried out in America and Europe. The vaccine appears to act more on the severity of the infection than on its incidence. In several poor countries, they substantially decrease the proportion of severe diarrhea and the mortality from it. The distribution of these vaccines in this type of country is however potentially limited by its high cost, by the need to preserve the cold chain in the transport of the vaccine and by the relatively narrow vaccine window (infants of less than two weeks). Both vaccines, however, have a very low risk of intestinal obstruction by intestinal intussusception 17,18 (one to five cases per 100,000 vaccinations).

In France, in 2012, vaccine formulas against rotavirus gastroenteritis (Rotarix, Rotateq) are not reimbursed by Social Security.

Ne pas supprimer SVP

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